Numerical modeling of superconductors is widely recognized as a powerful tool for interpreting experimental results, understanding physical mechanisms, and predicting the performance of high-temperature-superconductor (HTS) tapes, wires, and devices. This is particularly true for ac loss calculation since a sufficiently low ac loss value is imperative to make these materials attractive for commercialization. In recent years, a large variety of numerical models, which are based on different techniques and implementations, has been proposed by researchers around the world, with the purpose of being able to estimate ac losses in HTSs quickly and accurately. This paper presents a literature review of the methods for computing ac losses in HTS tapes, wires, and devices. Technical superconductors have a relatively complex geometry (filaments, which might be twisted or transposed, or layers) and consist of different materials. As a result, different loss contributions exist. In this paper, we describe the ways of computing such loss contributions, which include hysteresis losses, eddy-current losses, coupling losses, and losses in ferromagnetic materials. We also provide an estimation of the losses occurring in a variety of power applications.